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contributor.advisorNisini, Brunella-
contributor.advisorBuonanno, Roberto-
contributor.authorGarcia Lopez, Rebeca-
date.accessioned2009-02-27T14:12:20Z-
date.available2009-02-27T14:12:20Z-
date.issued2009-02-27T14:12:20Z-
identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2108/815-
description21. cicloen
description.abstractIn questa tesi viene presentata una analisi detagliata delle propieta' di accrescimento ed eiezione da stelle giovanni estinte di basa massa attraverso osservazioni ad alta risoluzione angolare nel vicino infrarosso effettuate con la camera infrarossa ISAAC. In questo modo, sono state analizzate la fisica, cinematica e dinamica di 5 getti di Classe 0/I (HH1, HH111, HH212 / HH34, HH46-47) al fine di ricavare informazioni circa l'origine dei getti e la dipendenza delle loro propieta' fisiche rispetto allo stadio evolutivo della sorgente. Inoltre, le propieta' di accrescimento di un campione di dieci sorgenti di Classe I sono state misurate con lo scopo di acertare loro stadio evolutivo. Tutti i getti studiati sono stati osservati per mezzo di emisione atomica e molecolare, traciate da righe di [FeII] e H2. Applicando tecniche di diagnostica nel vicino infrarosso, sono stati ricavati importanti parametri fisici. In particolare, un punto fondamentale di questa tesi e' stato derivare come varianno le propieta' fisiche di questi oggetti in funzione della velocita' radiale dello getto. Ad essempio, ne risulta che la densita' elettronica decresce al diminuire della velocita' a grande distanza dalla sorgente, con valori medi intorno 2600-6200 cm3. Inoltre, e' stata ricavata la masa trasportata da i getti che risulta maggiore di quella trovata in oggetti piu' evoluti di tipo TTauri, mentre il rapporto tra eiezione e accrescimento rimane approssimativamente costante indipendentemente dallo stato evolutivo dalla sorgente. E' stata altresi' studiata in detaglio la regione interna dei getti di Classe I con il preciso fine di determinarne il mechanismo di lancio. Come per i getti da stelle di tipo TTauri, la cinematica delle regioni interne e' caratterizzata da due componenti ad alta e bassa velocita' (HVC and LVC) in entrambe le emissioni atomiche e molecolare. La componente a bassa velocita' nei getti di Class I ragiunge distanze maggiori dalla sorgente (fino a 1000 AU) che nei getti di tipo TTauri. Inoltre, contrariamente a quanto trovato lontano dalla sorgente, nelle vicinanze della stella la densita' elettronica aumenta al diminuire della velocita', mentre la componente ad alta velocita' trasporta sempre la maggiore quantita' di masa. I risultati qui mostrati sono stati inoltre confrontati con le predizione trovate dai modelli di lancio di getti. Mentre le propieta' cinematiche sono, al meno qualitativamente, riprodotte da questi modelli, nessuno di loro riesce ad spiegare l'andamento osservato dalla densita' elettronica in funzione della velocita'. D'altraparte, non e' possibile stabilire alcuna correlazione tra la presenza di indicatori di acrescimento ed egezione entro il campione di sorgenti di Classe I. Inoltre, diversamente da cio' che previsto per le stelle giovanni, soltanto quatro delle dieci sorgenti hanno una luminosita' dominata da accrescimento. Questo risultato sembra suggerire che la maggioranza di stelle giovanni clasificate come Classe I sono in realta' sorgenti molto piu' evolute che hanno gia' acquisito la maggior parte della loro massa. Nonostante cio', i valori di tasa di accrescimento ottenuti sono in media piu' alti di quelli trovati in stelle di tipo TTauri della stessa masa.en
description.abstractIn this thesis a study of the accretion and ejection properties of low mass embedded protostar (the so-called Class 0/I sources) through ISAAC NIR high angular observations is presented. The physics, kinematics and dynamics of five Class 0/I jets (HH1, HH111,HH212 / HH34, HH46-47) have been analysed in order to give some insights about the jet generation and the dependence of the jet properties on the evolutionary stage of the source. In addition, the accretion properties of a sample of ten Class I sources have been measured in order to revise their evolutionary status. All the studied jets have been observed through atomic and molecular emission, traced by [FeII] and H2 transitions. Applying near-IR diagnostic techniques important physical parameters have been inferred. In particular, one milestone of this thesis was to derive the physical properties of embedded protostellar jets as a function of the jet radial velocity. For instance, at large distances from the source, the electron density (ne) has been found to decrease with lower velocities. Average values over the brightest knots of 2600-6200 cm3 have been found. The amount of mass transported along the flows has been also inferred. The results show that Class 0/I jets transport more mass than the more evolved jets from CTTS, while the accretion to ejection ratio remains roughly constant independently of the evolutionary stage of the source. The inner region of Class I jets has been studied in detail in order to constrain the jet launching mechanism. Similarly to what found in CTTS jets, Class I jets present two velocity components at high and low velocity (the HVC and LVC) in both the atomic and molecular gas. The LVC in Class I jets reaches, however, larger distances (up to 1000 AU from the source) with respect to jets from CTTS. At variance with what found at large distances from the source, in the inner jet region, ne increases with decreasing velocity, while the mass flux along the jet is always higher in the HVC. When comparing these results with the predictions of MHD jet launching models, the kinematical characteristics of the line emission are found to be, at least qualitatively, reproduced by the studied models. None of them can explain, however, the extent of the LVC and the velocity dependence of electron density that is observed. On the other hand, the study of the set of Class I sources reveals no clear correlation between accretion and ejection features. In addition, in spite of what is expected by embedded protostars, only four of the ten sources show accretion dominated luminosities. This result suggests that most of the objects considered as Class I sources are, instead, more evolved sources that have already acquired most of their mass. Despite this fact, the inferred mass accretion rates are larger that those found in CTTS of the same mass.en
description.sponsorshipFP6 Marie Curie research training network JETSETen
description.tableofcontentsChapter 1: The birth of stars - 1.1 From molecular clouds to protostars - 1.2 The evolution of young stellar objects (YSOs) - 1.3 The spectral energy classification of YSOs. - Chapter 2: Ejection and accretion of material in low-mass YSOs - 2.1 Protostellar jets - 2.1.1 The launching mechanism - 2.1.2 An observational overview of protostellar jets - 2.1.3 The inner jet region - 2.2 Accretion properties of YSOs - 2.2.1 Mass accretion in T Tauri stars - 2.2.2 Mass accretion in Class I sources. - Chapter 3: IR spectral analysis of protostellar jets - 3.1 Basic concepts and assumptions - 3.2 Diagnostic with [FeII] ratios - 3.3 Diagnostic with H2 lines - 3.4 Mass loss rates. - Chapter 4: Observations - 4.1 Advantages and limitations of NIR observations - 4.2 The sample - 4.3 VLT observations - 4.3.1 NIR spectra acquisition and analysis techniques. - Chapter 5: Velocity resolved diagnostics of Class 0/I jets. - 5.1 HH34 - 5.1.1 Dected lines - 5.1.2 [FeII] and H2 kinematics: large scale properties - 5.1.3 [FeII] and H2 kinematics: small scale properties - 5.1.4 Diagnostic of physical parameters - 5.2 HH46-47 - 5.2.1 Object description - 5.2.2 Observed lines - 5.2.3 Kinematics - 5.2.4 Low resolution spectral analysis - 5.2.5 Medium resoltuion spectral analysis - 5.3 HH1 - 5.3.1 Detected lines - 5.3.2 [FeII] and H2 kinematics - 5.3.3 Diagnostics of physical parameters - 5.4 HH111 - 5.4.1 [FeII] and H2 kinematics - 5.4.2 Diagnostic of physical parameters - 5.5 HH212 - 5.5.1 Detected lines - 5.5.2 [FeII] and H2 kinematics - 5.5.3 Diagnostic of physical parameters - 5.6 Discussion - 5.6.1 The base of Class I jets: HH34 and HH46-47 - 5.6.2 General properties of Class0/I jets. - Chapter 6: Probing the mass accretion in Class I protostars - 6.1 Detected lines - 6.1.1 Discussion on the observed spectral features - 6.2 Accretion properties - Conclusions - Appendix A, Observed spectroscopic line fluxes - Bibliographyen
format.extent4084122 bytes-
format.mimetypeapplication/pdf-
language.isoenen
subjectstar formationen
subjectprotostellar jetsen
subjectaccretion discsen
subjectHerbig-Haro objectsen
subjectClass I sourcesen
subjectNIR diagnosticsen
subjectHH34en
subjectHH46-47en
subjectHH111en
subjectHH212en
subject.classificationFIS/05 Astronomia e astrofisicaen
titleNear infrared diagnostics of Class 0/I protostars: the jets and accretion regionen
typeDoctoral thesisen
degree.nameDottorato in astronomiaen
degree.levelDottoratoen
degree.disciplineFacoltà di Scienze Matematiche Fisiche e Naturalien
degree.grantorUniversità degli studi di Roma Tor Vergataen
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date.dateofdefenseA.A. 2008/2009en
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